Sunday, May 24, 2020

Bank Kedarnath - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 8 Words: 2440 Downloads: 7 Date added: 2017/09/25 Category Advertising Essay Type Argumentative essay Did you like this example? Kedarnath Kedarnath is on the bank of the Mandakini River between Gangotri and Badrinath. As the crow flies Kedarnath is only 42km from Badrinath. Over 100,000 pilgrims come here each year. It is believed that Sankaracharya passed away here about 820 AD. Kedareswar Siva is the presiding deity. Behind the Kedarnath temple is an impressive mountain range, with the beautiful Kedarnath Mountain (6,970m). Kedarnath Temple This Lord Siva temple at Kedarnath is said to have been built by the Pandavas to atone for their sins procured during the Kurukshetra war. It is believed that this temple was originally constructed by the Pandavas, and the present temple was reconstructed by Sankaracharya in the 8th century. One of the 12 Siva-Jyotirlingas is in this temple. The temple is dedicated to Lord Sada Siva and is considered to be one of the major Siva temples in India. Inside the temple there is an irregular, three-faced linga, representing the hump of Lord Siva when he took the form of a bull. It is about 3m (9 ft) long, 1m (3 ft) wide, and 1. 3m (4 ft) high. Pilgrims are allowed to touch the linga, perform worship, abhishek (bathe), and massage the linga with ghee. There are deities of goddess Parvati and Ganesh in front of the main altar door. Outside the second door are Lord Krishna, the five Pandavas, their wife, Draupadi, and their mother, Kunti. In the temple is a Lakshmi-Narayana Deity, which was installed by Adi Sankaracharya. The temple faces south, which is a unique feature, as most temples face east. This temple is very solidly built. The temple opens the first week of May and closes either the last week of October or the first week of November. May/June is the busiest time of the year. Worship of Sri Kedarnath is continued in the village of Okhimath in the winter by the priest from the Kedarnath Temple. The waiting time to enter the temple in the afternoon is about 15 minutes, otherwise if you go at 7 am the waiting time may be two hours or m ore. The main pujas are at six am and six pm. Temple Story The story of the temple is that the Pandavas felt contaminated by sinful reactions from killing so many people during the Kurukshetra war. They decided to ask Lord Siva for his blessings to relieve them from these sinful reactions. The Pandavas first went to Kashi (Varanasi) to get Lord Siva’s blessings, but the Lord fled to Uttarakhand (Guptakashi) and lived there incognito. Eventually the Pandavas found him there, and Lord Siva turned himself into a bull to hide. Bhima recognized his disguise and grabbed the bull by the tail. The bull slowly sank into the ground, and Lord Siva then appeared before them on account of their great determination. Lord Siva instructed them to worship the remaining hump of the bull (pinda form). A temple was then constructed and worship has been going on here ever since. Other parts of Lord Siva’s body appeared in other places in the area. It is said that the Pandavas also bu ilt temples at these places. They are known as the Panch Kedars: Kedarnath, hump (pinda); Tungnath, arm (bahu); Rudranath, face (mukh); Kalpeswar, hair (jata); and Madhyamaheswar, navel (nabhi). Other Places There is a marble staff behind the temple that commemorates Sankaracharya. It is believed that Sri Sankara passed away in Kedarnath. There is another school of thought that says he passed away in Kanchipuram, Tamil Nadu. Just behind the Kedarnath Temple is the Mahapanth Trail (Gate of Heaven). It is said that from this place there is a path that goes north up to Swarga-rohini (path to heaven). It is said that the five Pandavas took this path after performing a huge yajna (sacrifice). Other people said that the Pandavas ascended from Badrinath. A path to the east of the village, to the right of the temple, leads to the Bhairava temple. Bhairava is the furious form of Lord Siva. It is a 20-minute walk. Before you cross the bridge that crosses to the town you come to a path that leads to a glacier, 4km away. The path here can also be reached by crossing the river over the bridge that is behind the temple and climbing up the hill. Chorabari Tal lake, an emerald green lake, is next to the glacier. It is also known as Gandhi Sarovar, because some of Mahatma Gandhi’s ashes were throw here. It takes 1? to 2 hours to walk here from Kedarnath. About a km from the lake is the source of the Mandakini River. Vasuki Tal (4320m) is a tough 9km trek from Kedarnath. The path begins near the Tourist Bungalow. Past Vasuki Tal is the Khatling Glacier via the Painya Tal and Maser Tal lakes. For this trek you need a good guide and proper equipment. WheretoStay The Nigam Tourist Bungalow h(27210) as rooms for Rs 500, but it should be booked in advance. There are also dharamshalas and the Birla Guest House. The Bharat Seva Ashram, a large red building located left of the temple, is a nice, clean place with rooms for Rs 200. There are also a number of private no-na me lodges. Rooms are typically Rs 400 or Rs 600 a night for a decent room. Rooms are expensive for what you get. There are basic places to stay at Rambara, at the halfway point walking up to Kedarnath. Food in Kedarnath is basic and expensive, as it all has to be brought up by horseback. Travel The road to Kedarnath ends at a town named Gaurikund (1,981m). A bus from Haridwar or Rishikesh (295km) takes all day to reach Gaurikund. It is best to catch the early morning bus at 6 am. If you get a later bus you will definitely have to stop for the night on the way. The bus from Gangotri to Gaurikund (334km) takes a day and a half. From Gaurikund the bus usually takes a full day to get to Joshimath (Rs 100), which is 44km south of Badrinath; but you could reach Badrinath the same day if you get the 6 am bus and nothing goes wrong. Otherwise, from Joshimath the same bus goes the next morning to Badrinath. From Gaurikund you should make sure you reserve early morning buses the night b efore. Even if you are told you can get a ticket the next morning, do not believe it. You have to walk 14km, at least 4 hours, up a steep incline to get to Kedarnath from Gaurikund. The trek along the Mandakini River to Kedarnath is slow and tiresome. If the sky is clear, at the 10km stone you can view the Kedarnath mountain peak at 6,640m (22,770 ft). As the walk is very tough, it is advised to carry as little as possible up the hill. Even the smallest load can feel like a lead weight after a few km. If you cannot walk, you can rent a horse for about Rs 250 one way. To be carried by four people up the hill costs Rs 900 one way. You should be prepared to stay the night at Kedarnath, as it is difficult to go both up and down in the same day. Some people stop for the night halfway up at Rambara (7km), which has several simple eating places and some basic rest houses. Gaurikund Gaurikund is said to be the place where Gaurimata (Parvati) took birth and did austerities for hundreds of years, in order to marry Lord Siva. It is 210km from Rishikesh and 334km from Gangotri. Gaurikund is the last bus stop on the way to Kedarnath. There is a hot sulfur water spring here named Gaurikund (Tapta Kund), where you can bathe. It is said to mark the place where Parvati did austerities. It is a great place to bathe after returning from your walk to Kedarnath. Next to the spring is the Gauri Devi Temple, dedicated to Parvati. There is a temple called Sirkata Ganesh, the beheaded Ganesh, about half a km from Gaurikund. The Skanda Purana says this was the place where Lord Siva beheaded his son Ganesh and then gave him an elephant head. The story says that Ganesh was guarding his mother, Parvati, who was bathing in Gaurikund. When Siva, who had been traveling for a long time came, Ganesh stopped him. Siva, not recognizing his own son, then became angry and cut off the head of Ganesh. When Parvati found out this had happened, she requested Siva to bring him back to life and give him another head. Siva said he would give him the head of the first creature that came by, which happened to be an elephant. So he gave Ganesh the head of an elephant. Where to Stay and Eat In Gaurikund there are many private guest houses. For what you get most of them are way overpriced, usually they are at least Rs 350 for a dirty, run-down double room. There are many other places to choose from, but do not expect any bargains. Bharat Seva Ashram and Punjab Sindh are basic places and some of the rooms have bathrooms. Shivlok, next to Gaurikund and the Mandakini River is a decent place with double rooms for Rs 350. It is decently clean. The best place in town is the well-located GMVN Tourist Centre. This place should be booked at least a week in advance at the GMVN office in Rishikesh. It has double rooms for Rs 550 and dorm beds for Rs 125. Hotel Pavan Hansh Restaurant, next to Gaurikund, is a well-managed, good vegetarian place. Gauri’s Grand restaurant is a go od place with an extensive menu. You can leave your extra luggage at a cloakroom to your left, just after going up the steps from where the buses park. There is a Nigam Tourist Lodge with rooms for Rs 400 in Sonprayag, which is six km south of Gaurikund. Sonprayag is much more laid-back than Gaurikund, but you need your own transportation to stay there. Kedarnath being one of the 12 Jyotirlingam is a famous pilgrim site for Hindus in India. Located at a height of 3590 meters of Garhwal Himalayas, the huge temple made of granite stone with mighty Kedar range of Himalayas in the background will make you spellbound at first sight. Inside the temple, a stone looking like hump of an ox is Mahadev, Kedarnath. Many other idols of God are engraved on the wall of the temple inside. In front of the main gate of the temple a black statue of Nandi, the ox of Mahadev is guarding the temple. Best time to visit Kedarnath: Plan your trip between May and October, otherwise you cannot reach, it wi ll be a snow covered. Reaching Kedarnath: Apart from the temple itself, reaching Kedarnath is an adventure. Throughout your journey to the temple you will be amazed frequently by the natural beauty of the nature. You have to reach Gourikund, the last motor able road before Kedarnath. Gourikund is 233 km from Haridwar and 200 km from Rishikesh. It will take 10 – 11 hours to reach Gourikund from these places, so You have to start your journey very early in the morning. It is very tiring too. So it is better to halt somewhere in between. The place I will suggest is Rudraprayag or, Chandrapuri. Stay at Gourikund: You have to stay in Gourikund for a night before starting your journey to the temple. There are many cheap hotels in Gourikund. The best option is GMVN Tourist Rest House Ph: +91 1364 269202 DB @ INR 500 – 700 and dormitory @ INR 100 per bed. From Gourikund it is a continuous uphill trek of 14 km to Kedarnath. The scenic beauty throughout your trek is mind-b lowing. Mandakini River throughout the journey will accompany you sometimes jumping from a cliff and sometimes hiding in a gorge. The natural beauty will alleviate all your exhaustion of climbing. Walk slowly and take rest in between. Buy a walking stick and polythene sheet to cover you in case of drizzle, which is quite common. Take care of your camera and dont forget a polythene bag for it exclusively. You can buy these on the route of your trek. Stalls for snack and tea are also available at few places on the route, where you can rest a while. If you dont want to walk at a stretch there is a option to halt at Ramwara for a night at either at Kalikamli Dharmashala or GMVN rest house. Though nature can be enjoyed most if you walk, it may not be possible for everyone to trek due to physical reasons. Pony, dandi or, doli (a chair carried by four persons), Pithhu ( a basket carried by single person mainly for kids, light weight people, and goods) are available for them. The rate depend on the weight of the person but whatever they take, I think it is less for the kind of labor they give! Please dont bargain with them. They are extremely poor and earn for few months with their hard labor and run their family throughout the year. By the way dont throw away your walking stick while coming down, the mistake done by me! The stick is more required while coming down. Reach Kedarnath by helicopter: Pawan Hans conduct a helicopter service from Agyastamuni helipad 17 km from Rudraprayag 5 passengers are carried at a time. The flight starts at 6. 30 am , 8. 10 am, 9. 40 am, and 11. 10 am. It takes 20 minutes to reach Kedarnath. Time allotted to visit temple is 1 ? hour. The fare for round trip per person at present @ INR 8500 and one way fly to Kedarnath @INR 5000 and return from there @ INR 4000. Round trip cost include the temple visit fee. Children below 2 years are charged 10% of the fare, while age over 2 has to pay the full fare. Contact: * Agastyamuni Helip ad Ph: +91 1364 256825 Delhi Office at Safdarjang Airport Ph: +91 11 24651248, 24632273, 24610465 * Monal Resort Rudraprayag Ph: +91 1364 233901/ 02 * GMVN Dehradun Ph: +91 135 2746817 * GMVN Haridwar Ph: +91 1334 224240 * GMVN Rishikesh Ph: +91 135 2435174 Where to stay at Kedarnath: GMVN Tourist Rest House Ph: +91 1364 263218/ 263228 DB @ INR 350 – 1000. Dormitory @ INR 100 per bed. Dharmashala of Kedarnath Temple Committee: +91 1364 263231 Other Dharmashalas of Bharat Sevashram Sangha, Madras Bhawan, Gujarat Bhawan etc. Trekking from Kedarnath: For the enthusiasts, there are something more in store at Kedarnath. A astonishing short trek to Chorabalital (Gandhi Sarovar) at 4275 meters is 4 km uphill trek from Kedarnath. En route you will see Mandakini Glacier, from where Mandakini river originated. More enthusiasts should walk 4 km more up to Basuki tal (4328 meters) If you plan to go up to Basuki tal carry food and take the help of a guide. Triyugi Narayan from Gourikun d: While coming back from Gourikund either to Haridwar or, Badrinath you can visit Triyugi Narayan Temple 12 km from Gourikund. It is said that the wedding of Shiva and Parvati was held here. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Bank Kedarnath" essay for you Create order

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

Together Against Genocide - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 6 Words: 1657 Downloads: 2 Date added: 2019/10/30 Category History Essay Level High school Tags: Genocide Essay Did you like this example? Together against Genocide   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   In 2003 300,000 people were brutally murdered in the Darfur province. Eight years before the tragedy of Darfur another genocide took place in Bosnia, and just one year before that 800,000 were killed in Rwanda. These are just some of the most recent examples of mass killings in history. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Together Against Genocide" essay for you Create order The human race has a horrible past when it comes to genocide and hate crimes. In 1941 the Holocaust took place throughout Germany and claimed the lives of nearly 12 million human beings. After the terror of the holocaust people believed that nothing like it could ever happen again. For nearly 45 years this was true and there were no mass deaths. Unfortunately it did not last and another tragedy in cambodia claimed the lives of another 2 million people. With the repeating patterns of genocide we must look into the past in order to prevent more horrors. Even today hate crimes are rampant throughout modern day america. We must wonder how this is possible after the atrocities of the past.   The education system across the globe has failed to teach children about the human races dark times, and it has lead to the continuation of hate crimes and genocide into the present day. In order to prevent future atrocities we must teach and discuss the mistakes of the past across the globe. In order to remember we start in Cambodia 1975 where nearly 2 million were killed in one of the worst genocides in history. Khmer Rouge took control of the cambodian government and advertised he was turning the country into a communist country. His regime moved people to camps similar to the ones in nazi Germany. People with educations and prominent leaders were the first people targeted, then the elderly, handicapped, and children because of their inability to perform harsh labor. Even the youngest were not saved from the regime cruelty, in fact they operated off of the belief that in order to stop the weeds you must also pull up their roots(United to End Genocide). People across the world were aware of the atrocities going on in Cambodia. Unfortunately neither the United states nor the European Union acted to save the lives of the millions that were being slaughtered in the regimes killing fields. The U.S had recently lost the Vietnam war causing them to be reluctant to take action . Public opinion of the genocide eventually became stronger but never amounted to action. Hate in cambodia was rampant throughout the 1970s. Unfortunately the conditions today are following many of the patterns that caused genocide in the past. According to the Washington Post hate crimes in the U.Ss 10 largest cities have increased by twelve percent last year(Hauslohner). With hate crimes on the rise we must wonder if the messages people receive as children are causing an influx in hate. By discussing the horrors of the past and exposing children to other ethnicities it is possible to help prevent the possibility of further genocide. Rwanda was yet another time in history when the terrors of human hate ended with the mass killing of thousands. A civil war had broken out between the tutsis and hutus in the early 1990s. A peace treaty was created between the two groups, but when a plane was shot down carrying the presidents of Rwanda and Burundi the war broke out again. The Hutu rebels took over the streets of Kigali and Within a day, the Hutus had successfully eliminated Rwandas moderate leadership. As the weeks progressed, Tutsis and anyone suspected of having any ties to a Tutsi, were killed(United to end Genocide). The radio became the Hutus most powerful weapon, upon which speeches encouraging citizens to go to the streets and kill those of the tutsis minority. The radio was also used to justify the mass killings by dehumanize the tutsis by calling them animals and cockroaches which made it easier to kill them. The radio was able to mask the genocide, instead portraying it as a slave rebellion by telling stori es of oppression under tutsis rule. In addition to the rampant murder rape was used as a weapon to destroy the tutsis ethnicity. Throughout the genocide it is estimated that between 250,000 and 500,000 women were raped. It was considered another way to destroy the Tutsi ethnic group, through both the emotional pain (so the woman could die of sadness), and through the health problems that would be a result. Often times, women did not even have to succumb to the aftermath of rape as they were often immediately killed right after(United to end Genocide). The genocide occurred in the late 20th century were again the international powers were well aware of the horrors happening in Rwanda. Unfortunately none of the world powers were willing to get involved. The New York Times and Washington Post both wrote articles that describe the genocide and the six feet tall piles of bodies that scattered Rwanda streets. The U.S deliberately didnt call the massacre in Rwanda genocide which kept them from being involved. In fact when the UN peacekeeping nation finally decided to help the tutsis the U.S was on the forefront backing the UNs exit of Rwanda believing that it would cause an expensive war for America. Unfortunately this was one of the worlds most efficient massacres in human history in which 800,000 were killed in the span of 100 days. Much like the Holocaust killings were brutally efficient and humanity was nonexistent. Both genocides targeted a minority group and blamed the group for their past suffering. By recognizing such future patterns we will be able to prevent and stop genocide before it begins. One of the best ways to help people understand the horrors of the past is by providing an example of someone telling the story first hand. The novel Night by Elie Wiesel is an account of the authors experience in surviving the Holocaust. Elie is just arriving at Auschwitz one of the main concentration camps in Nazi germany when he is shocked by the sheer brutality and says Never shall I forget that night, the first night in camp, which has turned my life into one long night, seven times cursed and seven times sealed. Never shall I forget that smoke. Never shall I forget the little faces of the children, whose bodies I saw turned into wreaths of smoke beneath a silent blue sky(Weisel 76). First hand accounts are one of the best ways to educate people about the atrocities that have happened to millions of people in the past. This example shows some of the horrors an everyday person witnessed and struggled through. If people can understand how terrible actions such as these can affect a person then they will be more motivated to respond in future situations. After the Holocaust the United States pledged that Never again(United to End Genocide) should the crime of genocide happen. Yet again and again have similar horrors happened and the U.S and other nations stood by while innocent people are slaughtered. No person should ever have to go through the horrors of genocide. Even after someone has survived they are never the same. After the holocaust was finished elie was in the hospital when One day when I was able to get up, I decided to look at myself in the mirror on the opposite wall. I had not seen myself since the ghetto. From the depths of the mirror, a corpse was contemplating me. The look in his eyes as he gazed at me has never left me (Weisel 115). Even though Elie was liberated he feels the death of his fellow people. The feeling will never leave him which is not something that any person deserves. He feels the death of his Dad, Mom, and sisters along with the millions of other people he witnessed slaughtered during the Holocaust. The effects of such loss is unimaginable to millions of people across the globe. Elies story has been able to motivate thousands of people across the globe. Unfortunately there are many stories just like his that have gone untold. If more people are able to hear about stories like Elies then more and more people will want to step up and help if something similar to these previous genocides were to happen again. The tragedies in Rwanda, Cambodia, and Germany were just a few of the examples of mass genocide in human history. People like Elie are present day living examples of the affects genocide can have on a persons life. Elie lost his family, friends, and people during the Holocaust; his life was turned upside down and changed forever. The possibility of such cruelty often surprising to many but unfortunately it has not been enough to stand up for others facing more recent genocides. The tragedy in Rwanda was ignored by the world and 800,000 lives were lost as a consequence. In Cambodia 2 million died in yet another genocide that went unnoticed by the world. Patterns such as these are how genocide has even become a possibility which in the past lead to reality.   When people do not voice their concerns and disagreement against atrocities people are hurt, families are lost and the human race is torn apart. Hate roots from the early beginnings of childhood. Revisiting what children are tau ght in school and at home could be critical to reducing hate and even genocide in future generations. Ultimately, standing by while people are heartlessly slaughtered should not be how the human race functions and therefore things must change. From prevention that starts from childhood to stopping genocide when signs first appear, together the human race can end genocide. Works Cited Dolor, L.I. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit, 1998. Print. Dolor, L.I. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit, sed diam nonummy nibh. New York: Columbia UP, 1998. Print. Doe, R. John.   Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit, sed diam nonummy nibh, 1998. Print.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Year 12 End of year Project †Attributes of God Free Essays

There are two main views of what it means to say that God is eternal: 1. God is timeless, he is outside time and not bound by time; God is the creator of time. 2. We will write a custom essay sample on Year 12 End of year Project – Attributes of God or any similar topic only for you Order Now God is everlasting, he moves along the same timeline that we do but never begins or ends. The past is the past for God as well as for us and the future is unknown to us and is also to some extent unknown to God because it has not happened yet. Our understanding of what it means for God to be eternal is important because it affects many other attributes of God for example, God is omniscient – can God really know the details of events which have not yet happened? the problem of evil – if God can see the whole picture from the beginning can he be partly to blame for things being the way they are? And God is omnipotent – can God change the past and undo events which have already happened or is that beyond his power? The view that God is timeless has been very popular among Christian thinkers for example, Anselm, Augustine, Boethius and Aquinas. God being timeless is the idea that God exists outside time, and can see the past present and future with perfect knowledge . Time is argued as an aspect of creation like space, and God is in control of it. God is not bound by space; he can be and is everywhere at once. In the same way God is not bound by time but exists in every part of history and every part of the future while being present in the world today. This view of God being timeless is popular because it shows that God is not limited. As an aspect of creation, time is something introduced by God rather than something God is dependent on. God’s omnipotence is not threatened if God is not bound by the restrictions of time – perhaps a God who could not know the future would be less powerful than one who could. It is a view that God is unchangeable (immutable), which is argued to be a necessary part of God. People who don’t like the idea of God being everlasting argue that if God was bound by time then he would be much more limited. He would not know what the outcomes of actions might be; he would have to wait and see how events turned out before he decided what to do next. If this was true God’s omnipotence and omniscience would be reduced to the point where God could hardly be called all-powerful and all-knowing. Those who defend the view that God is outside time argue that other concepts of God’s relationship with time do not recognise the uniqueness of God. God can bring events in time and can cause changes in people without being changed himself, because God is not a person in the same way we are. There are things which are possible for God, because of the unique nature of his existence, even if we may not be able to see how they could be possible from within our limited understanding. Other people have raised objections to the view that God is timeless, saying it creates more problems than it resolves. It has been argued that if God is timeless and unchangeable then God cannot be a person, or be said to have a ‘life’. A person with a life has to be changeable in order to have relationships and respond to people according to what they do. A timeless God would not be able to love because a timeless God is immutable and therefore is not affected by anything. Jurgen Moltmann and Charles Hartshorne argued that love cannot be compatible with immutability. A loving being responds to the object of his/her love. If the loved one is feeling happy, the one who shared that love is in that happiness too; if the loved one suffers, then the one who loves feels pain too. But these feelings change/happen within time. Therefore God has to exist within time, so that God is able to respond to us through love. If there is a living God who has relationships with people as individuals then it is argued that God cannot also be timeless. Richard Swinburne writes that the view of a timeless God contradicts the Bible: ‘If God had thus fixed his intentions ‘from all eternity’ he would be a very lifeless thing†¦Yet, the God of the Old Testament is a God in continual interaction with men†¦Ã¢â‚¬â„¢ Swinburne argues that the view of God outside time is one which is not biblical but which has entered Christian thinking through the influence of ancient Greeks, and then re-enforced by Thomas Aquinas. Swinburne does not see why a perfect being should have to be changeless; it was Plato who planted the idea about a world that was unchanging but do we have to accept Plato’s ideas? In the Bible, Swinburne argues God does not have fixed purposes for all eternity. He does not intend for all of time to have something happening which is then unchangeable. God interacts with people and his decisions about what will happen may change because of the on-going process of his relationship with individuals. A biblical example of this is Hezekiah’s illness when he prays to God and God gives him another fifteen years of life. Perhaps, Swinburne was right and that God does have plans but was persuaded to change his mind. However, there are passages that suggest God has fixed intentions which do not change. Unlike humanity, God knows with perfect knowledge what he will do and has no need to alter his views. Augustine considered the question of whether the Bible supports the idea of a God who is timeless or a God who is everlasting and reached the opposite conclusion to Swinburne. For Augustine, the problem was that God had made the world at a particular point in time, which raised the issue of what God had been doing all the time beforehand. Augustine wondered why, if God was everlasting, he picked a particular moment to create the universe, and how God might have been spending his time before the universe existed. For Augustine, the biblical account of creation points towards a timeless God, who chooses to create day and night and chooses to create the seasons but who transcends ideas of ‘before’ and ‘after’. How to cite Year 12 End of year Project – Attributes of God, Papers

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Latar belakang kawasan kajian Essay Example For Students

Latar belakang kawasan kajian Essay Outline1 3.1 PENGENALAN2 3.2 PEMBANGUNAN DI MALAYSIA3 3.2 PEMBANGUNAN DI KEDAH4 3.3 LATAR BELAKANG KAWASAN MERGONG5 3.4 CIRI-CIRI FIZIKAL6 3.4.1 Bentuk Muka Bumi:7 3.4.2 Cuaca dan Iklim:8 3.4.3 Tumbuh-Tumbuhan Semulajadi:9 3.4.4 Sistem Perparitan dan Saliran:10 3.5 KEPENDUDUKAN11 3.6 KEGIATAN EKONOMI12 3.6.1 Pertanian13 3.6.2. Industri Kilang14 3.6.3 Perniagaan:15 3.7 GUNA TANAH16 3.8 PEMBANGUNAN DAERAH MERGONG17 3.9 KEMUDAHAN-KEMUDAHAN INFRASTRUKTUR18 3.9.1 Bekalan Elektrik19 3.9.2 Bekalan Air20 3.9.3 Hubungan telefon21 3.9.4Hospital dan Kemudahan Kesihatan22 3.9.5 Lain-lain Kemudahan23 3.10 SISTEM PENGANGKUTAN24 3.11 KESIMPULAN 3.1 PENGENALAN Dalam bab ini, perkara yang dibincangkan adalah tentang latar belakang kawasan kajian dan aspek yang berkaitan dengan pembangunan lokasi kajian, penduduk, sosio-ekonomi, guna tanah, perindustrian dan lain-lain. Dalam bab ini, isu kesan perindustrian seperti pencemaran dibincangkan. Bab ini, pembaca Akan memahami secara lebih mendalam tentang kawasan kajian. dengan mengetahui secara lebih mendalam latar belakang kawasan kajian, penkaji Akan dapat memahami dan menerangkan secara menyeluruh tentang kawasan kajian. 3.2 PEMBANGUNAN DI MALAYSIA Pembangunan adalah sesuatu aspek yang penting dan sentiasa diutamakan oleh kebanyakan negara yang sedang membangun dan negara maju. Di Malaysia, pembangunan adalah satu docket penting yang diberi keutamaan kerana Malaysia adalah sebuah negara yang sedang membangun. Pembangunan di sini bermaksud pembangunan ekonomi, politik, sosial, dan lain-lain. Jika dilihat kembali sejarah Zaman Batu Awal, manusia sudah mula berusaha mencipta peralatan-peralatan dan pengangkutan untuk memudahkan kehidupan mereka. Secara lahiriah, setiap manusia sudah pasti ingin mengecapi pembangunan dan pemodenan serta gaya hidup yang mudah dan berkualiti. Oleh itu, kita tidak dapat menghalang pembangunan sesebuah negara. Di kebanyakan negara maju dan negara sedang membangun, pembangunan ekonomi adalah sesuatu yang blanching penting dan sentiasa diutamakan. Revolusi perindustrian adalah salat satu agen dan pemangkin kepada pembangunan ekonomi sesebuah negara. Revolusi perindustrian di Malaysia telah bemula sejak tahun 1970-an lagi. Revolusi perindustrian ini adalah salat satu langkah mencapai Wawasan 2020. Usaha mencapai Wawasan 2020 terbukti dengan pembangunan sektor perindustrian, pertanian, perumahan dan sebagainya. Setiap negeri di Malaysia mempunyai kawasan Perindustriannya sendiri. Contohnya, Shah Alam ( Selangor ) , Mergong ( Kedah ) dan lain-lain. 3.2 PEMBANGUNAN DI KEDAH Negeri Kedah merupakan salat sebuah negeri daripada 14 negeri yang terdapat di Malaysia. Negeri Kedah terletak di utara Semenanjung Malaysia. Lokasi negeri Kedah adalah bersempadanan dengan 3 negeri dash 1 negara iaitu Perlis ( Barat Laut ) , Pulau pinang ( Barat Daya ) , Perak ( Selatan ) dan Thailand ( Utara ) . Kedah Darul Aman merupakan sebuah negeri di Semenanjung Malaysia yang kaya dengan hasil pertanian. Kedah mempunyai keluasan lebih kurang 9,426kmA? . Kedah terletak di Utara semenanjung Malaysia yang berhadapan dengan Selat Melaka. Kedah merupakan salat sebuah negeri Agraria ( pertanian ) yang mempunyai banyak kawasan pertanian padi serta perkampungan nelayan. Negeri Kedah juga dikenali sebagai negeri Jelapang Padi kerana hasil pertanian padi yang banyak. Perindustrian membawa kepada pertumbuhan penduduk dan wujudnya banyak bandar-bandar baru. Kawasan perindustrian biasanya mempunyai tahap kepadatan penduduk yang sangat tinggi. Berdasarkan bancian pada tahun 2003, Kedah mempunyai populasi penduduk sebanyak 1,778,188 Pongo pygmaeus. Daripada itu, populasi penduduk yang berbangsa Melayu adalah kaum terbesar dengan 75 % , diikuti kaum Cina iaitu sebanyak 15 % , kaum India sebanyak 7 % , Bukan warganegara sebanyak 1.6 % , lain-lain kaum sebanyak 1.4 % . Negeri Kedah terbahagi kepada 9 buah daerah yang kecil. Daerah-daerah tersebut adalah Daerah Kubang Pasu, Daerah Padang Terap, Daerah Yan, Daerah Pendang, Daerah Kuala Muda, Daerah Sik, Daerah Baling, Daerah Kulim dan Daerah Alor Setar. Di setiap daerah ini, terdapat aktiviti-aktiviti ekonomi yang dijalankan oleh penduduk tempatan. Sebagai contoh, aktiviti ekonomi yang dijalankan di Daerah Pendang adalah pertanian padi basah, Revolusi Perindustrian di Kedah tertumpu di Kulim dan Mergong. Pembangunan perindustrian ini semakin rancak dan membesar. Semakin banyak kilang dibina berhampiran dengan kawasan perumahan, pusat rekreasi dan sungai. Pembangunan yang tidak terancang boleh mendatangkan masalah manusia dan alam sekitar. 3.3 LATAR BELAKANG KAWASAN MERGONG Negeri Kedah Darul Aman mempunyai 11 buah daerah. Daerah Kota Setar adalah ibu negeri Kedah. Terdapat 34 buah mukim dalam daerah Kota Setar. Salah sebuah mukim yang terdapat dalam Daerah Kota Setar adalah Mergong. Mergong adalah salat sebuah mukim yang sangat terkenal dan menjadi tumpuan penduduk. Kawasan Mergong ini adalah sebuah kawasan perindustrian. Sebelum pembinaan kawasan perindustrian ini, kawasan ini kurang menjadi tumpuan penduduk. Apabila kawasan ini dibangunkan menjadi kawasan perindustrian yang utama di Kedah, kawasan ini mula didiami penduduk. Ini kerana terdapatnya peluang pekerjaan yang banyak dalam sektor perindustrian serta jaringan pengangkutan yang dimajukan. Ini telah menyebabkan pertambahan penduduk di kawasan Mergong semakin meningkat. Daerah Kota Setar sudah lama wujud. Mengikut sejarah, daerah Kota setar telah wujud sejak awal abad ke-16. Daerah Kota Setar ini telah berkembang pesat dan akhirnya diishtiharkan sebagai Bandaraya Alor Setar pada 21 Disember 2003. Daerah Kota Setar ini mempunyai keluasan 666 kmA? . Kawasan perindustrian Mergong ini meliputi 60.45 hektar daripada jumlah keluasan daerah Kota Setar. 3.4 CIRI-CIRI FIZIKAL Bagi melihat ciri-ciri fizikal kawasan perindustrian Mergong, pengkaji telah mengenalpasti ciri-ciri bentuk muka bumi, iklim dan cuaca, tumbuh-tumbuhan semulajadi serta saliran dan perparitan di Daerah Kota Setar. 3.4.1 Bentuk Muka Bumi: Kawasan daerah Kota Setar terdiri daripada kawasan tanah pamah yang landai. Dianggarkan sebanyak 85 % daripada kawasan di Daerah Kota Setar adalah kawasan tanah pamah. Di kawasan tanah pamah ini, pelbagai jenis aktiviti dijalankan seperti, perindustrian, perniagaan, kawasan pentadbiran, kawasan perumahan, kawasan bandar, kawasan pertanian dan lain-lain. Kawasan tanah pamah sangat sesuai dibangunkan sebagai pusat bandar dan pembinaan sistem pengangkutan yang baik. Daerah Kota Setar disaliri oleh 3 buah anak sungai iaitu Sungai Mempelam, Sungai Gunung Sali, dan Sungai Alor Terus. Kawasan tanah pamah yang luas ini juga telah mempengaruhi kegiatan ekonomi penduduk. Contohnya, kawasan tanah pamah yang luas dan subur serta sistem saliran yang baik telah membolehkan kebanyak penduduk menjalankan kegiatan pertanian. Terdapat sedikit kawasan tanah tinggi di daerah Kota Setar. Kawasan tanah tinggi ini adalah kawasan di sekeliling Gunung Kerian. Kawasan di Gunung Kerian ini mempunyai kepadatan penduduk yang rendah serta sistem jalan raya yang kurang baik. Old Civilizations EssayKategori industri ketiga adalah industri berat. Bilangan industri berat kawasan Mergong adalah blanching sedikit. Walaupun bilangan industri berat ini adalah sedikit, tetapi kilang-kilang industri berat inilah yang telah menjadi titik permulaan kepada pembukaan kawasan Perindustrian Mergong ini. Antara kilang yang blanching awal di buka di kawasan Perindustrian Mergong ini adalah Kilang Sime Tyres iaitu kilang pembuatan tayar yang terkenal. Antara kilang kilang lain yang mengusahakan industri berat adalah kilang beras, kilang pembuatan cecair N, kilang simen, kilang pembuatan tayar kenderaan berat, kilang pembuatan kapal dan bot-bot kecil, bengkel membaiki kereta. Berdasarkan kepada laporan MBAS ( 2000 ) , terdapat lebih 600 buah kilang di kawasan ini. Kilang-kilang yang terdiri daripada pelbagai jenis dan ketegori. Antara jenis industri yang utama di kawasan Mergong ini adalah industri ringan, industri pembuatan dan perkhidmatan serta industri berat. Kawasan perindustrian Mergong ini menyediakan lebih kurang 40,000 peluang pekerjaan kepada penduduk. 3.6.3 Perniagaan: Kawasan Mergong ini adalah sebuah kawasan yang sangat berhampiran dengan pusat bandar iaitu Bandaraya Alor Setar. Di kawasan Mergong ini, terdapat pelbagai aktiviti ekonomi. Antara aktiviti ekonomi yang utama di kawasan ini adalah aktiviti perniagaan. Aktiviti perniagaan adalah satu aktiviti ekonomi yang penting kerana ia akan menjana pendapat penduduk setempat yang berniaga. Selain itu, ia juga Akan menyumbang kepada pendapatan dan menjana ekonomi negeri Kedah. Perniagaan adalah antara aktiviti yang penting kerana ia akan membawa kepada pertumbuhan penduduk di kawasan tersebut. Secara lahiriah, manusia memang suka akan kemajuan serta kawasan ekonomi seperti pusat bandar berbanding kawasan pedalaman yang kurang aktiviti perniagaan. Terdapat pelbagai jenis aktiviti perniagaan di mukim Mergong ini. Antaranya adalah perniagaan makanan, pakaian, tekstil, barang kemas, kedai menjual kereta dan motosikal, hotel, motel, kedai perabot, kedai papan. Selain itu, di kawasan Mergong juga terdapat ‘Hipermarket yang terkenal iaitu TESCO. Oleh itu, kawasan ini menjadi sebuah kawasan yang terkenal dengan pelbagai aktiviti perniagaan. 3.7 GUNA TANAH Secara keselurahannya, guna tanah di Mergong adalah lebih kepada kegiatan ekonomi seperti perindustrian, perniagaan, pertanian dan lain-lain. Kebanyakan kawasan telah dibangunkan untuk tujuan ekonomi. Kegiatan ekonomi ini adalah sangat penting kerana ia menyediakan peluang pekerjaan kepada penduduk setempat. Selain itu, penduduk dapat meningkatkan taraf sosio-ekonomi penduduk. Antaranya adalah kawasan perindustrian Mergong. Kawasan perindustrian Mergong adalah sebuah kawasan yang luas. Ia meliputi lebih 600 buah kilang di kawasan ini. Kawasan perindustrian Mergong ini terbahagi kepada 2 fasa iaitu fasa 1 dan Fasa 2. Oleh itu, kawasan perindustrian Mergong ini merupakan sebuah tapak yang sangat luas dengan melibatkan pelbagai kegiatan perindustrian di kawasan tersebut. Terdapat pelbagai jenis industri di Mergong iaitu industri ringan, industri sederhana dan industri berat. Antara contoh industri ringan adalah kilang-kilang membuat bahan makanan seperti gula-gula, keropok dan lain-lain. Contoh industri sederhana pula adalah kilang papan, kilang perabot, kilang kayu, kilang kapas, kilang kicap, kilang pakaian, dan pelbagai jenis kilang lain. Contoh industri berat yang terdpat di kawasan perindustrian Mergong adalah kilang Sime Tyres, kilang simen, kilang besi dan keluli dan lain lain. Aktiviti kilang di kawasan perindustrian ini membawa pelbagai kesan terhada p penduduk dan alam sekitar. Kesan-kesan daripada perindustrian ini Akan dibincang dalam bab 4 dan bab 5. Guna tanah untuk kawasan perumahan adalah terhad. Kawasan Mergong ini yang pada asalnya adalah kawasan pertanian merupakan kawasan tumpuan penduduk. Pada Masa sekarang, kawasan ini telah dibangunkan menjadi bandar dan pusat perindustrian. Oleh itu, tanah yang digunakan untuk tujuan perumahan menjadi semakin kurang. Walaupun kawasan ini merupakan kawasan tumpuan penduduk, kawasan perumahan ini adalah terhad di sebahagian kawasan sahaja. Ini kerana kebanyakan kawasan telah dibangunkan menjadi pusat ekonomi seperti bandar dan sebagainya. Kawasan Mergong ini mempunyai jumlah penduduk yang ramai kerana terdapatnya peluang pekerjaan yang banyak serta taraf hidup penduduknya juga tinggi. Oleh itu, penduduk di kawasan Mergong ini kebanyakannya adalah penduduk yang baru berpindah ke kawasan itu. Ini kerana, kawasan perumahan di Mergong ini boleh dianggap sangat baru. Oleh kerana kawasan Mergong tidak mempunyai tanah yang mencukupi untuk perumahan, rumah-rumah yang dibina adalah rumah jenis le vel. Ini adalah kerana masalah kekurangan tanah dan bilangan penduduknya yang ramai. Di kawasan Mergong, terdapat beberapa sekolah yang dibina. Antaranya adalah Sekolah Rendah Kebangsaan Mergong, Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Mergong, Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Tunku Abdul Rahman ( STAR ) dan Sekolah Menengah Agama Kedah. Sekolah-sekolah ini terletak berhampiran dengan kawasan perumahan. Semua sekolah ini adalah antara sekolah-sekolah yang utama dan terkenal di Kedah. Selain itu, di kawasan Mergong juga terdapat kawasan pertanian. Pada mulanya kawasan pertanian ini merupakan kawasan pertanian sangat luas. Kawasan pertanian ini ditanam dengan padi basah. Apabila kawasan mergong mula dibangunkan, tanah-tanah pertanian tersebut diubah kepada pembangunan kawasan perindustrian. tanah-tanah pertanian itu dibeli dan di ambil alih oleh kerajaan dan syarikat-syarikat swasta yang inging menggunakan tanah tersebut. Oleh itu, kawasan pertanian di Mergong mula berkurangan. Guna tanah lain di kawasan Mergong ini adalah pembinaan kemudahan Perhentian Bas Ekspres di Alor Setar iaitu Perhentian Shahab Perdana. Semua Ba yang datang ke Alor Setar Dari pelbagai tempat seperti Dari Kuala Lumpur, Ipoh dan sebagainya akan berhenti di perhentian ini. BANK, TESCO, SEK RENDAH, SEK, MENENGAH, UNIVERSITY INSANIAH, PASAR BORONG, PUSAT FUTSAL, PUSAT KESIHATAN MERGONG, PEJABAT PENDIDIKAN DAERAH KOTA SETAR, KOMPLEKS PENERANGAN DI SHAHAB PERDANA, HOTEL/MOTEL, PUSAT PENJUALAN KERETA, PEJABAT JPJ 3.8 PEMBANGUNAN DAERAH MERGONG 3.9 KEMUDAHAN-KEMUDAHAN INFRASTRUKTUR 3.9.1 Bekalan Elektrik 3.9.2 Bekalan Air 3.9.3 Hubungan telefon 3.9.4Hospital dan Kemudahan Kesihatan 3.9.5 Lain-lain Kemudahan 3.10 SISTEM PENGANGKUTAN 3.11 KESIMPULAN hypertext transfer protocol: // q=map % 20kedah A ; imgurl= hypertext transfer protocol: // A ; imgrefurl=http: // A ; usg=__UgDwddpNj3b9l5tme89hXaCYaQg= A ; h=212 A ; w=206 A ; sz=6 A ; hl=en A ; um=1 A ; itbs=1 A ; tbnid=G49LrsUsXtHK3M: A ; tbnh=106 A ; tbnw=103 A ; prev=/images % 3Fq % 3Dmap % 2Bkedah % 26start % 3D36 % 26um % 3D1 % 26hl % 3Den % 26sa % 3DN % 26ndsp % 3D18 % 26tbs % 3Disch:1 A ; start=44 A ; um=1 A ; sa=N A ; ndsp=18 A ; tbs=isch:1 # tbnid=G49LrsUsXtHK3M A ; start=48

Sunday, March 8, 2020

A Survey of Information Technologies in Logistics Management Essays

A Survey of Information Technologies in Logistics Management Essays A Survey of Information Technologies in Logistics Management Essay A Survey of Information Technologies in Logistics Management Essay A Survey of Information Technologies in Logistics Management Anil Gurung University of Texas at Arlington Department of Information Systems and Operations Management, College of Business Administration Office: Room 630 Business Building Box 19437 701 S West St. Arlington, Texas 76019-0437 Voice: 817. 272. 3528 Email: [emailprotected] edu ABSTRACT This paper analyzes the impact of information technologies (IT) on logistics by conducting a survey of literatures on academic logistics journals and practitioner journals. The literature survey and practice find that third party logistic providers have better opportunity to leverage IT since they need to have interoperable IT systems with their customers. The business philosophy of Just-In-Time (JIT) has also contributed to the impact of IT in logistics. Further, information technologies are identified that has benefited the logistics. Future directions of logistics are discussed. INTRODUCTION The proliferation of information technologies (IT) and the internet technologies have provided impetus and challenges to the logistics. New technologies present new means to manage the flow of information. IT as a productivity tool can be utilized to both increase the capability and decrease the cost at the same time (Closs et al. , 1997). It has been widely accepted that firms can achieve competitive advantage by cost reduction or differentiation with the proper implementation of IT (Porter Millar, 1985). Enabled by IT the logistics has become a source of competitive advantage for many firms. Two streams of research are identified that highlights the role of IT in logistics. First stream relates to just-in-time logistics information system (Anderson Quinn, 1986; Bookbinder Dilts, 1989; Das Handfield, 1997; Gomes Mentzer, 1988; Perry, 1988; Schwarz Weng, 2000; Spencer, M. S. et al. , 1994; Spencer, M. S. et al. , 1996; Takahashi Nakamura, 2000; Titone, 1996; Wafa Yasin, 1996). The other stream is the third party logistics (Lewis Talalayevsky, 2000; Peters et al. , 1998; Sauvage, 2003; Sink Langley, 1997; Vaidyanathan, 2005). Importance of IT in logistics has grown to some extent by business philosophy of Just-InTime (JIT) by firms. With the emphasis of firms on JIT, the impact of logistics has grown as it is increasingly recognized as a source of consistent, low lead time, damage free deliveries (Bardi et al. , 1994). In pursuit of competitive advantages, firms outsource their functions which are noncore competencies so that they can focus on their core competencies. A recent survey found that 83 percent of the surveyed Fortune 500 companies reported having at least one contract with a third-party logistics provider (Lieb Bentz, 2004). Over the years, the use of third-party logistics has been increasing. Similar survey of Fortune 500 companies taken in 1991 had only 38 percent of the respondents reporting the use of third-party logistics provider (Lieb, 1992). The 618 third party logistic operators attempt to harness the capability of information technology to provide superior services to their customers. The objective of this paper is to study how IT has impacted logistics. To this end, literature review of both leading academic and practitioner logistic journals is conducted. The next section will report the framework of logistics. The following section will analyze the IT enablers in logistics. Then, the implications of ecommerce are discussed followed by a section on future directions for logistics. REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE A classification scheme logistics functions provides a meaningful way to study how IT has impacted the various functions of logistics. Previous research in logistics have categorized the use of information systems in logistics in different ways. A system of logistics functions can be divided into following five broad areas (Bowersox, 1974): facility location, transportation, inventory, communication and material movement. Based on the problem areas that application addresses, seven areas of logistics has been identified as facility location, inventory control, order entry, vehicle scheduling, warehouse layout planning, freight rate retrieval, and product and shipment tracing (Ballou, 1976). Another survey identified five categories as facility location, inventory control, transportation, production scheduling, and total physical distribution (House, 1978). These categories treated each category as individual entities rather than a whole system. Noting this shortcoming, Stenger (1986) proposed another classification consisting of transaction systems, short-term scheduling and inventory replenishment systems, flow planning systems, and network planning and design systems. Expanding on the framework developed by Bowersox, Novack et al (1992) divided logistics function into two categories. The first category refers to physical activities that are required various utilities of customer need. These will include inventory, transportation and customer service operations. The second category refers to flow of information or transaction activities that follow or initiate the physical activities. The physical and information flows in logistics function is well-depicted in Figure 1 that shows the categorization of logistics functions as described by Vaidyanathan (2005). As shown in the figure, information flows between logistics function are managed, coordinated and supported by various logistics technologies. 619 Inventory and Logistics Management: Freight Consolidation Freight Distribution Shipment Planning Traffic Management Inventory Management Carrier Selection Order Entry/ Management Information Flow Customer Service: Freight Payments Auditing Order Management Fulfillment Help Desk Carrier Selection Rate Negotiation Information Flow Warehousing: Packaging Product Making Labeling Warehousing Material Flow Transportation: Fleet Management Cross Docking Product Return Figure 1: Categorization of Logistics Functions (adapted from Vaidyanathan 2005) IT enablers in Logistics The literature in logistics is full of instances where information technology has been touted as a means to enhance logistics competitiveness (Bowersox, 1974; Closs et al. , 1997; Rabinovich et al. , 1999; Stenger, 1986). Yet there has been few empirical studies that relates logistics information capabilities to logistics competence (Closs et al. , 1997). A popular framework in information systems discipline put forward by Gorry Morton (1989) place logistics decisions as structured and varying from operational to strategic. The role of logistics information systems as operational and strategic enablers in different areas of the firm’s supply chain has been stated in the literature (Langley et al. , 1988). There has been a shift of IT from being an enabler of operational and material handling functions to being an enabler of decision-making and activityplanning functions within the supply chain (La Londe Auker, 1973). Logistics Information System Logistics Information System (LIS) is the application component of logistics information technology. An effective LIS facilitates the proper information flow between inventory, 20 Information Flow warehousing and transportation to realize the high level of customer service. The ability to optimize the logistics cost and service levels is affected by the LIS of the firm and its partners. Firms that provide better logistics services at a lower cost can have competitive advantage over its competitors (Bardi et al. , 1994). Two classes of LIS has been recogn ized in the literature (Closs et al. , 1997). Logistics operating systems (LOS) refer to transactional applications such as order entry, order processing, warehousing, and transportation. Logistics planning systems (LPS) refer to coordinating applications such as forecasting, inventory management, and distribution requirements planning. EDI Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) has successfully enhanced the communication between firms which is essential for logistics. This technology requires firms to have common data formatting and transmission standards or protocols. Such technologies have been employed by companies to coordinate their value chain activities including logistics. Early applications of EDI has been on transmitting vehicle location information by railways to their customers. Other types of logistics information carried by EDI are purchase orders/releases and changes, advanced shipping notices, bills of lading, and invoices. Timely and accurate information is crucial in decision making about complex logistics problems. Japan Airlines (JAL) adopted EDI to manage their complex value chain logistics required for their operations, including procurement and just-in-time delivery of aircraft fuel, repair and maintenance aircraft parts, food catering and other customer requirements (Chatfield Bjorn-Andersen, 1997). The competitive advantage gained by companies employing EDI is cited in the literature. Firms utilizing EDI were better able to fulfill greater number of services to their customers (Rogers et al. , 1992). Bar coding Bar coding is one of the most IT enablers to date and has made significant impact in the practice. Starting in 1960’s some of the earliest implementation of bar codes were in rail road cars. Nowadays it is rampant in anything that needs to be identified and tracked. The different type of bar codes are available, known as symbologies, for different purposes. In practice, most firms prefer to use industry standards rather than proprietary standards for most of their bar codes on their products. By following industry standards, bar codes reduce the complications inherent in the use of multiple standards and thus provides a strong foundation for integrating the corporate logistics and the supply chain (Closs Kefeng, 2000). Real-time communications capability The logistics IT capability of real-time communications is essential for maintaining the flow of information. As noted by Dudley Lasserre (1989), one of the important roles of logistics IT is to substitute information for inventory. To make real-time tracking of goods, logistic information systems of business partners should have real-time communications capability. The business partners require an integrated messaging architecture which exchanges business data while customizing business flows and format transformation. Real-time communications also allows for schedule plans to change in dynamic routing and scheduling system when the vehicles are 621 already out on the road. Any last minute changes in routing and scheduling system or constant tracking has been possible only with real-time communications ability of the respective systems. RFID RFID helps to identify, track and locate items automatically. The use of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is expected to increase rapidly in coming years. Often referred to as the next step in the evolution of bar-coding, RFID is growing rapidly in the automatic data capture and identification market (Srivastava, 2004). RFID is not a new technology, in fact, its use dates back to 1940’s but only now it is starting to make a significant impact within the supply chain. The growth in use of RFID will be enhanced to some extent by mandates from large retailers such as Wal-Mart and Target, and the US Department of Defense, who require their suppliers to adopt this technology within the next few years (Asif Mandviwalla, 2005). Among the companies that are piloting RFID in their supply chain management prominent ones are WalMart, Procter Gamble, Coca-cola and Gillette. Although the biggest driver in the popularity of RFID has been supply chain, companies are experimenting in other applications as well. Other applications are theft detection, asset tracking, mobile payments, in-process inventory tracking and luggage tracking. Dell, Seagate, Boeing and Ford are among other companies that are using RFID to track their in-process inventory in manufacturing. An RFID system includes transponders or tags that can identify items ; antennas that allows tags to be interrogated and to respond; and software that controls the RFID equipment, manages the data and interfaces with enterprise applications. RFID has lots of potential to improve the efficiency in the supply chain and reduce waste. For example, efficiency would result from automatic update of inventory system when products with RFID tags are unloaded from trucks into stores. The advantages of RFID over bar coding are as follows: RFID tags can provide longer read distances; store more data; require no direct line of sight between tag and reader; and can collect data from multiple sources simultaneously (Asif Mandviwalla, 2005). There are some technical and business challenges to overcome before RFID can be ubiquitous. Technical issues include problems of interference, security and accuracy while business issues relate to costs and lack of standards. Another significant business challenge in adopting RFID faced by managers is to work out a business case for the executive board. Early adopters of these technologies are marred by problems such as possible adverse consumer outbursts to perceived invasion of privacy, reliability of the RFID system, and issues related to health, safety and IT integration. IMPLICATION OF ECOMMERCE ON LOGISTICS The growth of ecommerce pose opportunities and challenges for logistics. As internet retailing increases the companies are accepting orders from their clientele across the borders. In many instances the location of clients are not covered by any existing distribution system of the companies. On such occasions the companies have no resort but to turn towards third party logistics operators for physical flow of goods. As for the information flow, the companies need to have capabilities for ecommerce applications. The group of technologies and processes for coordinating logistics information flow has been named e-logistics. An important web 622 technology that facilitates the exchange of business data among logistics business partners across different platforms is extra markup language (XML). For example, UPS is exploiting the power of the web services to streamline its information flows for logistics activities such as RFQ, shipping and tracking. Changing Trends in Logistics Consultants are beginning to take an active part in helping out the shippers select third party logistics operators. Shippers hire consultants to help them align business processes with supply chain strategies. The newly coined term â€Å"4PL† for consultants stands for dominant role that consultants will be taking in managing the resources, the technology and the processes in the supply chain. It is yet to be seen whether the shippers will let the consultants manage all the logistics processes. Instead of handing over the authority to manage the logistics processes to the consulting firms, shippers may choose to develop alliance with the third party logistics operators and maintain the supply chain themselves. The key thing that will allow coordination between shipper firms and the third party logistics will be information technology and management skills to run the supply chain effectively. This implies that firms should also have proper logistic technologies in place to enjoy the full benefits of use of third party logistics. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS The research directions that are available for researchers in logistics are numerous. Before companies implement new logistic information technologies such as RFID it is important to assess the viability of adopting the technology. What would be the expected benefits? What is the ROI? Researchers can come up with various econometric models to predict the outcomes of adopting logistics technologies. Modeling techniques can be used to assess the scenarios that would be beneficial for adopting new technologies. As companies are entering into ecommerce, better coordinating techniques are required to streamline logistics activities for transactions taking place on the internet. Collaborative technologies for supporting e-logistics would greatly enhance the future logistics. Multi-agent systems (MAS) provide an interesting avenue of research that is applicable for supporting logistics technologies on the internet. Intelligent software agents can be used to assess the bids offered by multiple third-party logistics operators. To support global ecommerce the companies need to have different options for global logistics. The best way to traverse the geographical distribution is through technology. What are the communication channels and technologies that would benefit the company in terms of monitoring and coordination logistics functions? More empirical evidence will be preferred to establish the direct link between organizational performance and logistics information systems. Researchers can seek to examine the complex relationships between logistics technologies and performance from different paradigms and theories. The perspective of organizational learning can be used to evaluate the performance gained by employing logistics information systems. 23 CONCLUSION The objective of this paper was to observe the impact of information technology on the logistics functions. A literature review of the academic and practitioners journals was conducted. The information technologies that have been used to support logistics functions were discussed. It is evident that academic researchers are aware of new tec hnologies in practice such as RFID. Development in technologies offer sources of competitive advantage for companies. Adoption of new technologies provide challenge and opportunities for the companies. Proper business case and calculation of ROI needs to be done to assess the expected benefits from new technologies. Changing trends in business in terms of ecommerce open new markets for firms for all sizes to expand their market share. Strategic use of information resource would bear results of competitive advantage and thus leading to success stories. The best practices in logistic information technologies need to be adopted by firms in alignment of their strategic goals. Future trends in logistics may prompt companies to rethink their logistics strategies. Firms may choose to use third party logistics in order to focus on their core competencies. However, firms need to have logistics information systems in place that is compatible with the third party operators in order to fully benefit from their services. REFERENCES Anderson, D. L. Quinn, R. J. 1986, The Role of Transportation in Long Supply Line Just-InTime Logistics Channels , Journal of Business Logistics, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 68-88. Asif, Z. Mandviwalla, M. 2005, Integrating the Supply Chain with RFID: a Technical and Business Analysis, Communications of the AIS, vol. 15, pp. 393-427. Ballou, R. H. 976, Computer Methods in Transportation-Distribution, Transportation Journal, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 72-85. Bardi, E. J. , Raghunathan, T. S. Bagchi, P. K. 1994, Logistics information systems: The strategic role of top management, Journal of Business Logistics, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 7185. Bookbinder, J. H. Dilts, D. M. 1989, Logistics Information Systems in a Just-In-Time Environment , Jo urnal of Business Logistics, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 50-67. Bowersox, D. J. 1974, Logistics Management: A Systems Integration of Physical Distribution Management and Materials Management, Macmillan Publishing, New York, NY. Chatfield, A. T. Bjorn-Andersen, N. 1997, The impact of IOS-enabled business process change on business outcomes: Transformation of the Value Chain of Japan Airlines, Journal of Management Information Systems, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 13-40. Closs, D. J. Kefeng, X. 2000, Logistics information technology practice in manufacturing and merchandising firms An international benchmarking study versus world class logistics firms, International Journal of Physical Distribution Logistics Management, vol. 30, no. 10, pp. 869-86. 624 Closs, D. J. , Goldsby, T. J. Clinton, S. R. 1997, Information technology influences on world class logistics capability, International Journal of Physical Distribution Logistics Management, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 4-17. Das, A. Handfield, R. B. 1997, Just-in-time and logistics in global sourcing: An empirical study, International Journal of Physical Distribution Logistics Management, vol. 27, no. 3/4, pp. 244-59. Dudley, L. Lasserre, P. 1989, Information as a Substitute for Inventories , European Economic Review, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 67-88. Gomes, R. Mentzer, J. T. 988, A Systems Approach to the Investigation of Just-In-Time , Journal of Business Logistics, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 71-88. Gorry, G. A. Morton, M. S. S. 1989, A Framework for Management Information Systems, Sloan Management Review, vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 49-61. House, R. G. 1978, Computer Models in Distribution Management, Journal of Business Logistics, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 129-52. La Londe, B. J. Auker, K. 1973, A Survey of Computer Applications and Pr actices in Transportation and Distribution, International Journal of Physical Distribution, vol. 3, no. 5, pp. 92-301. Langley, C. J. , Carlisle, D. P. , Probst, S. B. , Biggs, D. F. Cail, R. E. 1988, Microcomputers as a Logistics Information Strategy, International Journal of Physical Distribution and Materials Management, vol. 18, no. 6, pp. 11-7. Lewis, I. Talalayevsky, A. 2000, Third-Party Logistics: Leveraging Information Technology , Journal of Business Logistics, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 173-85. Lieb, R. C. 1992, The use of third-party logistics services by large American manufacturers, Journal of Business Logistics, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 29-42. Lieb, R. C. Bentz, B. A. 004, The Use of Third-Party Logistics Services by Large American Manufacturers: The 2003 Survey, Transportation Journal, vol. 43, no. 3, pp. 24-33. Novack, R. A. , Rinehart, L. M. Wells, M. V. 1992, Rethinking concept foundations in logistics management, Journal of Business Logistics, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 233-67. Perry, J. H. 1988, Firm Behavior and Operating Performance in Just-In-Time Logistics Channels , Journal of Business Logistics, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 19-33. Peters, M. J. , Lieb, R. C. Randall, H. L. 1998, The use of third-party logistics services by European industry, Transport Logistics, vol. , no. 3, pp. 167-79. Porter, M. E. Millar, V. E. 1985, How information gives you competitive advantage, Harvard Business Review, vol. 63, no. 4, pp. 149-60. Rabinovich, E. , Windle, R. , Dresner, M. Corsi, T. 1999, Outsourcing of integrated logistics functions, International Journal of Physical Distribution Logistics Management, vol. 29, no. 6, pp. 353-73. Rogers, D. S. , Daugherty, P. J. Stank, T. P. 1992, Enhancing service responsiveness: the strategic potential of EDI, International Journal of Physical Distribution Logistics Management, vol. 22, no. 8, pp. 15-20. Sauvage, T. 2003, The relationship between technology and logistics third-party providers, International Journal of Physical Distribution Logistics Management, vol. 33, no. 3, pp. 236-53. Schwarz, L. B. Weng, Z. K. 2000, The Design of a JIT Supply Chain: The Effect of Leadtime Uncertainty on Safety Stock , Journal of Business Logistics, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 231-52. 625 Sink, H. L. Langley, J. C. J. 1997, A managerial framework for the acquisition of third-party logistics services, Journal of Business Logistics, vol. 18, p. 163. Spencer, M. S. , Dale, S. R. Patricia, J. D. 1994, JIT Systems and External Logistics Suppliers, International Journal of Operations Production Management, vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 6074. Spencer, M. S. , Daugherty, P. J. Rogers, D. S. 1996, Logistics support for JIF implementation, International Journal of Production Research, vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 701-14. Srivastava, B. 2004, Radio frequency ID technology: The next revolution in SCM, Business Horizons, vol. 47, no. 6, pp. 60-8. Stenger, A. J. 1986, Information Systems in Logistics Management: Past, Present, and Future, Transportation Journal, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 5-82. Takahashi, K. Nakamura, N. 2000, Reactive logistics in a JIT environment, Production Planning Control, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 20-31. Titone, R. 1996, Moving Beyond JIT to Logistics Planning, IIE Solutions, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 22-4. Vaidyanathan, G. 2005, A Framework for Evaluating Third-Party Logistics, Communications of the ACM, vol. 48, no. 1, pp. 89-94. Wafa, M. A. Yasin, M. M. 1996, The impact of supplier proxi mity on JIT success: an informational perspective, International Journal of Physical Distribution Logistics Management, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 23-34. 626

Thursday, February 20, 2020

Manhattan Transcripts Between Idealism and Reality Essay

Manhattan Transcripts Between Idealism and Reality - Essay Example Tschumi developed the Manhattan Transcripts from 1977 to 1981 as a set of theoretical drawings as he was exploring the use of notation and the effectiveness of disjunction. This was in an effort to come up with new ways of expressing a few of the traditional means of representing architectural forms. Tschumi had the theoretical agenda of describing elements that have roots in the conventional architectural representation shown by the complex relationship between spaces and their uses, objects and events, as well as typology and program, when he developed the Manhattan Transcripts. His work focused on a set of disjunctions among use, form, and social values. The programs in the transcripts have the most extreme nature as they bring out the plot of the archetype of murder. The transcripts try to introduce a different insight of architecture which shows the independent, yet related aspects of space, movements, and events (Tschumi, â€Å"Urban Pleasures† 11). When it comes to classification, the transcripts offer a different perspective to architecture whereby space, events, and movements are ultimately independent, but at the same time, related to one another. This leads to breaking down of conventional architectural components and rebuilding them along different lines (Tschumi, â€Å"Disjunctions† 117). All the four sections of the Manhattan Transcripts use their tentative format to explore unlikely confrontations, therefore, bringing to light the fact that perhaps, all architecture, apart from being about functional standards, is all about love and death. The Manhattan Transcripts are not a random accumulation of events, but rather they display a certain order that makes them not to be self-contained images. They have a final cumulative meaning that depends on the succession of spaces. The representation of events, movements, and spaces indicate the use of tripartite notation in the Manhattan Transcripts. Movement in the